References

Find references to publications and studies as well as the cited research findings.

 

Resources

Function

How Triclosan works

  • Jones R.D., Jampani H.B., Newman J.L. and Lee A.S., 2000. Triclosan: A review of effectiveness and safety in health care settings. American Journal of Infection Control, 28 (2), 184-196

Bacteria

  • Guillén J., Bernabeu A., Shapiro S. and Villalaín J., 2004. Location and orientation of Triclosan in phospholipid model membranes. European Biophysics Journal, 33 (5), 448-53

  • Regös J. and Hitz H. R., 1974. Investigations on the mode of action of triclosan, a borad spectrum antimicrobial agent. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg., I. Abt. Orig. A 226, 390-401

  • Russel A.D., 2004. Whither triclosan? Journal of Antimicrob Chemother, 53, 693-695
  • Villalaín J., Mateo C.R., Aranda F.J., Shapiro S., Micol V., 2001. Membranotropic effects of the antibacterial agent Triclosan. Arch. Biochem. Biophys, 390 (1), 128-36

Viruses

  • Bondi C.A.M., Arbogast J.W., Macinga D.R., Lambkin-Williams R. and Moane E., 2007. Virucidal Performance of Various Professional Hand Hygiene Products Against Avian Influenza A H5N1. American Journal of Infection Control, 2. 35 (5): E34-E35
  • Dellanno C., Vega Q. and Boesenberg D., 2009. The antiviral action of common household disinfectants and antiseptics against murine hepatitis virus, a potential surrogate for SARS coronavirus. American Journal of Infection Control, 37 (8):649-52.
  • Park G.W., Barclay L., Macinga D., Charbonneau D., Pettigrew C.A., Vinjé J., 2010. Comparative Efficacy of Seven Hand Sanitizers against Murine Norovirus, Feline Calicivirus, and GII.4 Norovirus. Journal of Food Protection,  73(12): 2232-38

 

Applications & Benefits

Oral Care

  • Davies R.M., Ellwood R.P. and Davies G.M., 2004. The effectiveness of a toothpaste containing triclosan and polyvinyl-methyl ether maleic acid copolymer in improving plaque control and gingival health. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 31, 1029-1033

  • Fine D.H., Furgang D., Bonta Y.,DeVizio W., Volpe A.R., Reynolds H., Zambon J.J. and Dunford R.G., 1998. Efficacy of triclosan/NaF dentifrice in the control of plaque and gingivitis and concurrent oral microflora monitoring. American Journal of Dentistry, 11 (6), 259-70

  • Guggenheim B., Giertsen E., Schüpbach P. and Shapiro S., 2001. Validation of an in vitro Biofilm Model of Supragingival Plaque. Journal of Dental Research, 80  1, 363-370 
    http://www.fdaapproveddrugs.us/product.php?i=colgate-total&d=020231

  • Lorenz K., Netuschil L., Noack B., Brecx M., and Hoffmann T., 2002. Zeitdauer der antibakteriellen WirkungTriclosan-haltiger Zahnpasten in vivo. Deutsche Zahnärztliche Zeitschrift, 57, 5, 279-282

  • Mann J., Verved Y., Babayof I., Sintes J., Petrone M.E., Volpe A.R., Stewart B., DeVizio W., McCool J.J. and Proskin H., 2001. The Comparative Anticaries Efficacy of a Dentifrice Containing 0.3 % Triclosan and 2.0 % Copolymer in a 0.243 % Sodium Fluoride/silica base and a dentifrice containing 0.243 % sodium Fluoride/Silica Base: A Two-Year Coronal Caries Clinical Trial on Adults in Israel. The Journal of Clinical Dentistry, 12 (3), 71-76

  • Niedermann R., 2005. Triclosan-containing new agents for the control of plaque and gingivitis: microbiological susceptibility. Evidence-Based Dentistry, 6 (2), 33

  • Niles H.P., Hunter C., Vazquez J., Williams M.I. and Cummins D., 2005. The clinical comparison of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice vs a breath freshening dentifrice in reducing breath odor overnight: a crossover study. Oral Diseases 11 (Suppl. 1), 54–56

  • Sreenivasan P.K. and Gaffar A., 2008. Antibacterials as anti-inflammatory agents: Dual action agents for oral health. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 93 (3), 227-39.

  • Svatun B., Saxton C.A., Huntington E. and Cummins D., 1993. The effect of three silica dentifrices containing Triclosan on supragingival plaque and calculus formation and on gingivitis. International Dental Journal, 43, 431-439

Handwash

  • Bartzokas C.A., Corkill J.E. and Makin T., 1987. Evaluation of the Skin Disinfecting Activity and Cumulative Effect of Chlorhexidine and Triclosan Handwash Preparations on Hands Artificially Contaminated with Serratia marcescens. Infection Contro, 8 (4),163-167
  • Faoagali J.L., George N., Fong J., Davy J. and Dowser M., 1999.  Comparison of the antibacterial efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and 1% triclosan handwash products in an acute clinical ward. American Journal of Infection Control, 27 (4): 320-326
  • Fischler G.E., Fuls J.L., Dail E.W., Duran M.H., Rodgers N.D. and  Waggoner A.L., 2007. Effects of hand wash agents on controlling transmission of pathogenic bacteria from hands to food. Journal of Food Protection, 70(12):2873-2877.
  • Tuffnell D.J., Croton R.S., Hemingway D.M., Hartley M.N., Wake P.N. and Garvey R.J.P., 1987. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus; the role of antisepsis in the control of an outbreak. Journal of Hospital Infection, 10(3):255-259.
  • Zafar A.B., Butler R.C., Reese D.J., Gaydos L.A. and Mennonna P.A., 1995. Use of 0.3 triclosan (Bacti-Stat) to eradicate an outbreak of methicillin-resistent Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal nursery. American Journal of Infection Control, 23 (3):200-208.

Underarm Odor

  • Cox A.R., 1987. Efficacy of the antimicrobial agent Triclosan in topical deodorant products: Recent developments in vivo. Journal of the Society of Cosmetic, 38, 223-231

Acne

  • Franz E., Rohde B. and Weidner-Strahl S., 1978. The Effectiveness of Topical Antibacterials in Acne: A Double-Blind Clinical Study. The Journal of International Medical Research, 6 (1):72-7.

  • Lee T.W., Kim J.C. and Hwang S.J., 2003. Hydrogel patches containing Triclosan for acne treatment. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 56(3):407-12.

Hospital Care

  • Faoagali J.L., George N., Fong J., Davy J., Dowser M., 1999. Comparison of the antibacterial efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and 1% triclosan handwash products in an acute clinical ward. American Journal of Infection Control. 27 (4): 320-326
  • Jones R.D., Jampani H.B., Newman J.L. and Lee A.S., 2000. Triclosan: A review of effectiveness and safety in health care settings. American Journal of Infection Control, 28 (2), 184-196
  • Zafar AB et al..Use of 0.3 Triclosan to eradicate an outbreak of MRSA in a neonatal nursery. Am. J. Infect. Control, (1995) 23:200-208.

 

Safety: Human Health

No endocrine effects on living organisms

  • DeLeo, P., et al., Comment on "Effects of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyl triclosan on thyroid hormone action and stress in frog and mammalian culture systems". Environ Sci Technol, 2011. 45(23): p. 10283-4; author reply 10285-7.
  • Fort D., Rogers R., Gorusch J., Navarro L., Peter R. and Plautz J., 2010. Triclosan and anuran metamorphosis: No effect on Thyroid-mediated metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis. Toxicological Sciences, 113:392-400.
  • Fort, D.J., et al., Triclosan and thyroid-mediated metamorphosis in anurans: differentiating growth effects from thyroid-driven metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis. Toxicol Sci, 2011. 121(2): p. 292-302.
  • Fort, D.J., M. Mathis, and S. Pawlowski, Comment on "Effects of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyl triclosan on thyroid hormone action and stress in frog and mammalian culture systems". Environ Sci Technol, 2011. 45(17): p. 7602; author reply 7600-1.
  • Paul K.B., Hedge J.M., DeVito M.J., Crofton K.M., 2010. Short-term exposure to Triclosan decreases thyroxine in vivo via upregulation of hepatic catabolism in young Long-Evans rats. Toxicological Sciences, 113(2):367-79.
  • Rodricks, J.V., et al., Triclosan: a critical review of the experimental data and development of margins of safety for consumer products. Crit Rev Toxicol, 2010. 40(5): p. 422-84.
  • Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (2009). Opinion on Triclosan. COLIPA No. P32, 21 Jan 2009. PDF available at: 
    http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_166.pdf
  • U.S. EPA, EPA 739-RO-8009. 2008. Reregistration eligibility decision for Triclosan, [PDF]. Available at:
    www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/reds/2340red.pdf
  • Zorrilla, L.M., et al., The effects of triclosan on puberty and thyroid hormones in male Wistar rats. Toxicol Sci, 2009. 107(1): p. 56-64.

No long-term or large-scale accumulation

  • Rodricks, J.V., et al., Triclosan: a critical review of the experimental data and development of margins of safety for consumer products. Crit Rev Toxicol, 2010. 40(5): p. 422-84.

Not carcinogenic

No evidence of bacterial resistance

 

Safety: Environment

Chloroform levels not detectable in real use conditions

  • Hao Z., Parker B., and Knapp M., 2007. In vitro stability of Triclosan in dentifrice under simulated use condition. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, Vol. 29(5):353–359.

No evidence on adverse endocrine effects in living organisms

  • Fort D., Rogers R., Gorusch J., Navarro L., Peter R. and Plautz J., 2010a. Triclosan and anuran metamorphosis: No effect on thyroid-mediated metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis. Toxicological Science, 113:392-400.

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